Glossary

Lesson 1 : Welcome to Green Beetz!

  1. Impact - Having an effect on someone or something.

  2. Food Literate - Being food literate means you understand how what we eat impacts our lives and the Earth.

Lesson 2 : The Natural Food Cycle

  1. Consumers - Animals get their energy and nutrients from eating (consuming) other living things.

  2. Decomposers - Tiny organisms like bacteria or fungi that get their energy by breaking down plants or animals after they die and then returning many of the nutrients back to the soil.

  3. Food Chains - Show the flow of energy and nutrients from one living creature to another -- one linear path.

  4. Food Webs - Show the many different pathways of energy flow that connect animals and plants rather than one linear path like a food chain.

  5. Producers - Plants are able to capture all the energy they need from sunlight and produce many of the nutrients necessary for life, such as complex carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Lesson 3 : History of Food

  1. Agricultural Revolution - Around 9,000 BC humans began settling down into larger communities and created farms.

  2. Modern food system - What we have developed and used for the last 100 years; farmers use new technology and chemicals to produce a larger quantity of food to sell.

    1. The modern food system includes:

      1. Factory farms/industrial farms - Huge farms that produce food in the way a factory would.

      2. Pesticides - Chemicals that kill pests in order to allow more crops to grow.

  3. Traditional food system - Farmers directly grow plants and raise animals to sell and consume with very little mechanization or change to the naturally grown product, plant, animal.

Lesson 4 : Environmental Impacts of The Modern Food System

  1. Antibiotics - Medicine to fight infections.

  2. Contaminated - Ruined.

  3. Factory farms/Industrial farms - Farms that run like factories.

  4. Hormones - Given to make animals grow fast.

  5. Local food sources - Food grown/raised near to where you buy it.

  6. Natural resources - Found in the Earth or grown; not man-made.

  7. Pesticides - Chemicals to kill pests or bugs.

Lesson 5 : Nutrition Science Basics

  1. Carbohydrates - An important source of immediate energy; they are made up of sugars and are found in everything from bread, to fruits and vegetables, to milk. There are two types of carbohydrates: complete carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates usually taste sweeter but are less healthy – they are found in white bread, soda, fruit juice, etc. Complex carbohydrates are healthier. Some examples of complex carbohydrates include oatmeal, whole grain bread, and vegetables.

  2. Energy - The energy in our food comes from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats as they are broken down and changed within our body. The amount of energy that a food contains is measured in calories. If we eat more calories than we use up staying alive and doing activities, the extra energy is stored in the form of body fat, and we gain weight.

  3. Fats - Are used for long-term energy storage and help with the functioning of the brain, skin, and other organs. Fats also help us to utilize vitamins. Healthy fats occur naturally in many foods (e.g., milk, nuts, avocados, and more). Generally, these fats are better for us than the fat that is added when food is processed or deep-fried.

  4. Nutrients - All of the foods we eat contain nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Vitamins and minerals are important for our health and help us fight disease. The three main types of nutrients are: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Different kinds of foods contain different amounts of these nutrients.

  5. Proteins - Are very important for our cells’ functioning – they help with things like growing bones, muscles, hair and nails, and the health of our immune system and blood. The main sources of proteins are animal products, beans, and nuts.

Lesson 6 : The Digestive & Circulatory System

  1. Circulatory System – A group of organs in the body that work together to move important cells and chemicals to and from the cells.

    1. Circulatory system is made up of the heart, the blood vessels, and the blood itself.

    2. Nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, blood cells, and waste are a few of the most important things that are moved by the circulatory system.

  2. Digestion – The breakdown of food into tiny nutrients.

  3. Digestive System – A group of organs in the body that work together to break food down into small nutrients and that then allow the nutrients to be absorbed into the bloodstream.

    1. The digestive system consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

Lesson 7 : Diet-Related Illnesses

  1. Arteries - Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the cells of the body. Most arteries bring oxygen and nutrients to the cells.

  2. Heart Disease - A poor diet can lead to little bits of cholesterol, fats, and calcium building up inside of blood vessel walls. These build-ups are called plaques. When plaques block blood vessels that normally deliver oxygen to the heart - your heart needs a lot of oxygen to properly function - the reduced blood flow can cause heart pain and may even lead to a heart attack.

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) - When the force of blood pushing against your artery walls is too high, beyond healthy levels. This increased blood force can lead to damaged and weak blood vessels (arteries), which can be dangerous. Being overweight/obese and possibly consuming high levels of salt and being inactive are all linked to high blood pressure.

  4. Obesity - Consuming too many high calorie foods can lead to weight gain; an excessive amount of weight to your body size is considered obee. Obesity can make it more likely you develop diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

  5. Plaque - In the case of the circulatory system, plaques are build-ups of cholesterol, fats, and calcium inside the walls of the arteries. Plaques can also include white blood cells and platelets (types of blood cells). Plaques can restrict and even block blood flow through the arteries.

  6. Type II Diabetes - Leads to high levels of sugar in the bloodstream which can damage nerves, blood vessels, and other organs like the kidneys and the pancreas. Diabetes can lead to blindness, tingling in the feet and hands, severe infections and higher risk of heart disease. Obesity and consuming excess amounts of sugar (especially soda) daily for many years may lead to Type II Diabetes.

Lesson 8 : Marketing & Advertising

  1. Advertising - The process of making a product well known to the public so it can be sold.

  2. Marketing - Any kind of public announcement that tries to convince people to purchase a product.

  3. Profit - How much money is earned (once you subtract what it cost you to make, advertise, package, etc. a product).

Lesson 9 : Cooking Basics

  1. Bake - A method of cooking in an oven that surrounds the food with heat from all sides.

  2. Boil - A method of cooking in which the food is heated in boiling water.

  3. Digestibility - How easily food can be broken down for nutrients and energy. Cooking increases digestibility of many types of food.

  4. Fry - A method of cooking that uses significant amounts of oil, butter, or other fats. Frying can add significant amounts of fat to the food.

  5. Grill - A method of cooking over a flame or hot coals. Grilling can produce some of the leanest dishes, as fats often drip out and fall through the grate, away from the food.

  6. Preserve - Keeps food edible for longer. Cooking and then storing food in sealed jars helps to preserve foods for many months or even years.

  7. Sauté - A method of cooking in a large pan that involves moving the food around quickly so that it does not burn or stick to the pan. Food can be sautéed in a small amount of oil, broth, or water.

Lesson 10 : The Culture of Food

  1. Cuisine - A style or method of cooking, especially one characteristic of a particular country or region.

  2. Staple - Foods that are so plentiful in a region that they have become part of the daily food consumption and may be a part of one or more meals each day. Some examples are bread, rice, beans, yucca, quinoa, etc.